What is Cholera? Intestinal tract infections
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria, this bacteria enter into one’s body through contaminated food or drink. The bacteria secrete enterotoxins (toxins) in the intestinal tract so that diarrhea (diarrhoea) is accompanied by acute and severe vomiting, resulting in a person within a few days of losing a lot of body fluids and entering the condition of dehydration.
If dehydration is not treated promptly, it will progress towards hypovolemic and metabolic acidosis in a relatively short period of time and may cause death if inadequate treatment. Provision of regular drinking water will not help much, Patients (patients) need cholera infusion of sugar (Dextrose) and salt (Normal saline) or infusion fluid form in the mix both (Dextrose Saline).
1. Spreading of Cholera Disease
Cholera can spread as an endemic, epidemic, or pandemic disease. Although many large studies have been conducted, the condition remains a challenge for modern medicine. Vibrio cholerae bacteria multiply and spread through the human feaces, if the dirt containing these bacteria contaminate the river water and so others then contact with water are at risk of cholera disease as well.
For example washing hands that are not clean and eat, washing vegetables or foods with water containing cholera bacteria, eating fish that live in water contaminated with cholera bacteria, even the water (such as disungai) made drinking water by other people who live around it.
2. Symptoms and Signs of Cholera Disease
In people who feaces found cholera bacteria may be for 1-2 weeks have not felt a complaint is meaningful, But when the occurrence of infection attacks sudden diarrhea and vomiting with quite serious conditions as an acute attack that causes the vague type of diarrhea experienced.
However, in people with cholera disease there are some things signs and symptoms are shown, among others are:
- Diarrhea is watery and abundant without preceded by a sense of heartburn or tenesmus.
- Feaces or feces (stools) that originally colored and smelled turned into a turbid white liquid (like rice laundry
- water) without the smell of rotten or fishy, but like a piercing sweet.
- Feaces (liquid) that resemble this rice washing water when deposited will remove white clumps.
- Diarrhea occurs many times and in sufficient quantities.
- The occurrence of vomiting after preceded by diarrhea that occurs, the patient does not feel nausea before.
- Abdominal muscle spasms can also be felt with great pain.
- The amount of fluid that comes out will cause dehydration with signs such as; Rapid heartbeat, dry mouth, weakness of the physical, sunken eyes, hypotension and others that if not immediately get a replacement handling of lost body fluids can result in death.
3. Handling and Treatment of Cholera Disease
Patients suffering from cholera disease should immediately get immediate treatment, by providing a replacement for lost body fluids as a first step. Giving fluids by way of Infusion / Drip is the most appropriate for patients who lose a lot of fluids either through diarrhea or vomiting. Next is the treatment of infections that occur, namely by giving antibiotics / antimicrobials such as Tetracycline, Doxycycline or Vibramicyn group. Treatment of this antibiotic within 48 hours can stop the diarrhea that occurs.
In certain circumstances, especially in areas affected by disease outbreaks of food / fluid dispensing is done by inserting a tube from the nose to the stomach (sonde). As many as 50% of the cholera cases that are severely heavy can not be overcome (died), while some 1% of cholera sufferers who received inadequate handling died. (Massachusetts medical society, 2007: Getting Serious about Cholera).
4. Prevention of Cholera Disease
How to prevent and cut the cholera transmission line is with the principle of environmental sanitation, especially the cleanliness of water and the removal of dirt (feaces) in place that meet environmental standards. Others are drinking water that has been cooked first, wash hands thoroughly before eating using soap / antiseptic, wash vegetables with clean water, especially vegetables eaten raw (lalapan), avoid eating fish and shellfish cooked half cooked.
If in a family member there is affected by cholera, should be isolated and immediately get treatment. Objects contaminated with vomit or stool should be sterilized, another infectious (vector) transmitted fly immediately eradicated. Cholera vaccination can protect people who are in direct contact with the patient.