Elements of Poem
1. Understanding Poem
Etymologically, the word poetry in Greek comes from poesis which means to mean creation. In English, the equivalent of this word poetry is a close poetry with -poet and -poem. Regarding the word poet, Coulter (in Tarigan, 1986: 4) explains that the word poet comes from Greek which means to create or create. In Greek itself, the word poet means one who creates through his imagination, one who is almost godlike or very fond of the gods. He is a shrewd person, a saint, a philosopher, a statesman, a teacher, a person who can guess the hidden truth.
Shahnon Ahmad (in Pradopo, 1993: 6) collects the definition of poetry commonly proposed by English romantic poets as follows.
(1) Samuel Taylor Coleridge argues that the poem is the most beautiful words in the most beautiful arrangement. The poet chooses the exact words and arranged the best, for example balanced, symmetrical, between one element with other elements very closely related, and so on.
(2) Carlyle says that poetry is a musical thought. The poet created the poetry in the minds of the melodious sounds of music in his poetry, the words arranged in such a way that the prominent is a series of melodious sounds like music, that is, by using sound orchestras.
(3) Wordsworth has the idea that poetry is an imaginative feeling statement, a feeling of being embodied or imagined. As for Auden suggests that the poem is more a statement of mixed feelings.
(4) Dunton argues that in fact the poem is a concrete and artistic human thought in emotional and rhythmic language. For example, with figures, with images, and artistically arranged (eg, harmonious, symmetrical, proper choice of words, etc.), and the language is full of feelings, and rhythmically like music (the substitution of the words in succession on a regular basis ).
(5) Shelley argues that poetry is the most beautiful recording of seconds in life. For example, events that are very impressive and bring about a strong renewal such as happiness, excitement peaking, romance, and even sadness due to the death of a loved one. They are the most beautiful moments to record.
From the above definitions it seems as if there are differences of thought, but still there is a common thread. Shahnon Ahmad (in Pradopo, 1993: 7) concludes that the above definition of poetry contains the major lines of poetry. These elements are emotions, imaginations, thoughts, ideas, tones, rhythms, sensory impressions, wording, figurative words, density, and mixed feelings.
2. Poetic Elements
Here are some opinions about the elements of poetry.
(1) Richards (in Tarigan, 1986) says that the element of poetry consists of
- the essence of poetry that covers the theme (sense), feeling (feeling), mandate (intention), tone (tone), and
- the method of poetry which includes diction, imagination, real word, majas, rhythm, and rhyme.
(2) Waluyo (1987) who says that in poetry there is a physical structure or so-called linguistic structure and inner poetic structure in the form of the author’s inner expression.
(3) Altenberg and Lewis (in Badrun, 1989: 6), although they do not state clearly about the elements of poetry, but from the outline of their books can be seen
(1) the nature of poetry,
(2) poetry language: diction, imajeri, Figurative language, rhetorical means,
(3) form: sound value, verification, form, and meaning,
(4) contents: narration, emotion, and theme.
(4) Dick Hartoko (in Waluyo, 1987: 27) mentions the existence of important elements in poetry, namely thematic elements or poetic semantic elements and elements of syntax of poetry. The poetic thematic element more pointed toward the inner structure of poetry, the syntactic element pointing toward the physical structure of poetry.
(5) the sound,
(6) the rhythm,
(7) the form (Badrun, 1989: 6) .
From the above points, it can be concluded that the elements of poetry include
(7) figurative language,
(8) concrete words,
(9) rhythm and rhyme.
The elements of this poem, according to Richards and Waluyo can be divided into two structures, namely the inner structure of poetry (themes, tone, taste, and message) and the physical structure of poetry (diction, imagery, figurative language, concrete word, rhythm, and rhyme ). Djojosuroto (2004: 35) illustrates the following.
Based on Richards’s opinion, Siswanto and Roekhan (1991: 55-65) describe the elements of poetry as follows.
2.1 Physical Structure of Poetry
The physical structure of poetry is described as follows.
(1) changable poetry (typography), a form of poetry such as pages that are not filled with words, the right-left edge, setting the row, until the line of poetry that does not always begin with a capital letter and end with a colon. These things determine the meaning of poetry.
(2) Diction, ie the selection of words by the poet in his poetry. Because poetry is a form of literary works that few words can express many things, then the words should be chosen as carefully as possible. The choice of words in poetry is closely related to meaning, sound alignment, and word order. Geoffrey (in Waluyo, 19 987: 68-69) explains that the language of poetry experienced nine (9) aspect of the deviation, ie lexical deviation, aberration semantic, phonological deviation, aberration syntax, the use of dialect, the use of registers (specific language diversity by the group / particular profession ), Historical aberrations (use of ancient words), and graphological aberrations (use of capital to point)
(3) Imagines, ie words or composition of words that can express sensory experiences, such as sight, hearing, and feeling. Imagery can be divided into three, namely sound image (auditif), visual image (visual), and touch or touch image (tactile image). Imagery can lead to the reader as if seeing, listening, and feeling like what the poet experienced.
(4) Concrete words, ie words that can be captured by the senses that allow the appearance of images. These words relate to metaphors or symbols. For example the concrete word “snow: symbolizes the frost of love, the void of life, etc., while the concrete word” swamps “can symbolize dirty places, places of living, earth, life etc.
(5) Figurative language, which is a kink language that can enliven / enhance effects and cause certain connotations (Soedjito, 1986: 128). Figurative language causes poetry to be prismatic, meaning it exudes a lot of meaning or is rich in meaning (Waluyo, 1987: 83). Figurative language is also called majas. Adapaun wide-amcam figure of speech, among others metaphor, simile, personification, litotes, irony, sinekdoke, euphemism, repetition, anaphora, redundancy, antithesis, allusion, climax, anti-climax, satire, pars pro toto, totem pro parte, to the paradox.
(6) Versification, which concerns rhyme, rhythm, and metrum. Rima is the sound equation of poetry, both at the beginning, the middle, and the end of the line of poetry. Rima includes
(1) an onomatopoe (an imitation of sound, eg / ng / which gives a magical effect on Sutadji C.B.) poetry,
(2) the internal form of sound patterns (alliteration, asonance, the final equation, the initial equations, intermittent poems, beaked poems, full rhymes, sound repetitions [words], etc. [Waluyo, 187: 92]);
(3) repetition of words / phrases. The rhythm is a low, short, hard, low sound. Ritma is very prominent in poetry readings.
2.2 Inner Structure of Poetry
The inner structures of poetry will be explained as follows.
(1) The theme / meaning (sense); Poetry media is the language. The tone of the language is the relation of sign to meaning, then poetry must be meaningful, whether the meaning of each word, line, stanza, or overall meaning.
(2) Pain (feeling), the poet’s attitude to the subject matter contained in his poetry. Disclosure of the theme and flavor closely associated with social background and psychological poet, for example, educational background, religion, gender, social class, status in society, age, sociological and psychological experience, and knowledge. Depth disclosure of themes and timeliness in addressing the problem does not depend on the ability penyairmemilih words, rhyme, style and form of poetry, but more dependent on the insight, knowledge, experience, and personality is formed by the background of sociological and psychological.
(3) The tone, the poet’s attitude to the reader. Tone also deals with themes and flavors. The poet can convey the theme in a patronizing tone, dictate, cooperate with the reader to solve the problem, leave the reader to the reader with a pompous, ignorant, low-reader,
(4) The mandate / purpose / intent (itention); Consciously or unconsciously, there is a purpose that encourages poets to create poetry. These goals can be sought before poets create poetry, or can be found in poetry.